Pinpoint pupils are pupils that remain very small even in bright light. They can signify many issues, including drug use, poisoning, or a hemorrhage.
Eyebrow twitching may result from everyday factors, such as caffeine, or disorders such as hemifacial spasm. Learn about causes and when to see a doctor.
(MedPage Today) -- Issue of safety highlighted again in POISE analysis
This case report describes a man in his early 50s with chronic left dacryocystitis who presented with decreased vision in the left eye.
This case report describes a 71-year-old man with psoriatic arthritis and stage IV cutaneous melanoma who presented with iritis in the right eye.
(MedPage Today) -- Do you have a preference?
(MedPage Today) -- Health news and commentary from around the Web gathered by the MedPage Today staff
This cross-sectional study used a data set on Medicare beneficiaries receiving cataract surgery to identify all routine preoperative testing that takes place after the decision is made to operate.
This cross-sectional population-based survey determines the prevalence and causes of unilateral vision impairment and unilateral blindness in indigenous and nonindigenous Australians.
This study assesses ultrasonography as a means to measure the optic nerve sheath diameter and intracranial pressure in patients with elevated intracranial pressure.
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial assesses outcomes of diabetic macular edema persisting at least 24 weeks after randomization to treatment with 2.0-mg aflibercept, 1.25-mg bevacizumab, or 0.3-mg ranibizumab.
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial examines the predicted risk of retinopathy of prematurity from the levels of circulating ω-3 and ω-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in neonates.
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial evaluates the authors evaluate contact lens adherence and its association with visual outcome in a cohort of children treated for unilateral cataract surgery.
This cross-sectional study evaluates the repeatability and agreement of best-corrected visual acuity using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study number chart or Landolt C chart compared with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study alphabet chart in healthy and diseased eyes.
This randomized crossover trial compares the discriminative ability of an automated noninvasive keratograph corneal topographer technique vs the fluorescein method to detect dry eye.
It has been well established that routine medical preoperative tests (eg, electrocardiograms, radiographic examinations, serum chemical analyses, and blood cell counts) confer no benefit in reducing adverse perioperative medical events during cataract surgery. Nonetheless, such testing widely persists, and the study by Chen et al in this issue of JAMA Ophthalmology demonstrates that the magnitude of health care dollars wasted by this unnecessary testing is even greater than previously thought. The question remains: how do we put an end to a practice that we know is usually unnecessary and therefore wasteful of health care financial resources and the time of patients and physicians?
Vision impairment is a significant source of morbidity that affects multiple aspects of systemic well-being, including quality of life, cognition, mental health, and risk of falls, fractures, and other injuries. Unilateral vision impairment poses a further challenge, as the loss of binocular vision and stereopsis may further increase the risk of injury and loss of independence. While it is known that vision impairment is a global burden, there is currently insufficient information to fully characterize this burden. Recent reports by the US National Academy of Medicine and the World Health Organization have highlighted the difficulties of estimating the prevalence and causes of vision impairment on a national and international level, largely due to the lack of availability of population-based studies. Furthermore, most available studies do not differentiate between unilateral and bilateral vision impairment, despite the important differences in functioning that occur between these 2 types.
Macular edema is the most common cause of vision loss in diabetes. Intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)–targeted therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME) leads to sustained visual and anatomic gains in well-designed randomized clinical trials. Despite these advances, persistent DME (pDME) at 24 weeks after anti-VEGF therapy and chronic, persistent DME (cpDME) at 2 years after initiation of treatment is a significant problem. An exploratory analysis by the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network demonstrated cpDME in 40% of participants at 3 years after anti-VEGF therapy with ranibizumab despite adherence to DRCR-retreatment protocols. The study also showed that despite persistent edema, visual outcomes were excellent in most patients.
The Prematurity of Recommending Particular Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplements for Retinopathy of Prematurity
The Donna Mega Study in Gothenburg, Sweden, was a randomized, open-label, single-site clinical trial that compared 2 parenteral emulsions, 1 with 15% fish oil and rich in ω-3 fatty acids (SMOFlipid) and another based on olive oil (Clinoleic), on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), other morbidities of prematurity, and postnatal growth. Löfqvist et al report another analysis of serum levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) measured in a sample of 90 of 138 preterm infants in the Donna Mega Study, all of whom were born less than 28 weeks’ gestational age and 78 of whom survived for the final ROP examination. The study had previously reported that infants receiving SMOFlipid, compared to those on clinioleic, had reduced ratios of arachidonic acid (ω-6 20:4) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; ω-3 22:6) from 1 week after birth until 32 weeks’ postmenstrual age, and that there were no differences in the prevalence of morbidities between the 2 groups, including ROP or severe ROP. The goal of the current report was to examine the association between ROP and serum levels of the 2 most prevalent PUFAs in the brain and retinas of these infants, DHA (ω-3 22:6) and arachidonic acid (ω-6 20:4). The finding of an association between a reduced area under the curve of arachidonic acid at 1 month of life and the prevalence of ROP and severe ROP was somewhat unexpected, given experimental data that found neuroprotection and reduced retinopathy with forms of DHA.